Saturday, August 31, 2019
Literature Introduction Essay
What Is Literature and Why Do We Study It? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Literature is Ã¢â¬â Composition that tells a story, dramatizes a situation, expresses emotions, analyzes and advocates ideas Ã¢â¬â Helps us grow personally and intellectually Ã¢â¬â Provides an objective base for knowledge and understanding Ã¢â¬â Shapes our goals and values by clarifying our own identities, both positively and negatively Ã¢â¬â Literature makes us human. Genres Ã¢â¬ ¢ Four genres of literature: Ã¢â¬â Prose fiction Ã¢â¬ ¢ Myths, parables, romances, novels, short stories Ã¢â¬â Poetry Ã¢â¬ ¢ Open form and closed form Ã¢â¬ ¢ Relies on imagery, figurative language, sound Ã¢â¬â Drama. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Made up of dialogue and set direction Ã¢â¬ ¢ Designed to be performed Ã¢â¬â Nonfiction prose Ã¢â¬ ¢ News reports, feature articles, essays, editorials, textbooks, historical and biographical works Guidelines for Reading Literature Ã¢â¬ ¢ First reading Ã¢â¬â Determine what is happening, where, what, who is involved, major characters Ã¢â¬â Make a record of your reactions and responses Ã¢â¬â Describe characterizations, events, techniques and ideas Ã¢â¬ ¢ Second reading Ã¢â¬â Trace developing patterns Ã¢â¬â Write expanded notes about characters, situations, actions Ã¢â¬â Write paragraph describing your reactions and thoughts Ã¢â¬â Write down questions that arise as you read (in the margins) Writing a Precis Ã¢â¬ ¢ Precis = a concise summary = paraphrase Ã¢â¬â Retell the highlights so reader will know main sections Ã¢â¬â Only essential details Ã¢â¬â they must be correct and accurate Ã¢â¬â Must be an original essay, written in your own words Ã¢â¬â Be sure to introduce the title and author Ã¢â¬â Avoid judgments Ã¢â¬â Use present tense when retelling a story Elements of Fiction Ã¢â¬ ¢ Essence of fiction = narration (the telling) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Elements of fiction = verisimilitude and donnee Ã¢â¬â Verisimilitude = realism Ã¢â¬ ¢ Must be compelling enough that the reader can Ã¢â¬Å"suspend disbeliefÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Donnee = premise Ã¢â¬ ¢ Something given by which you can judge the realism = ground rules. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sources of elements Ã¢â¬â Character, plot, structure, theme, symbolism, style, point of view, tone, irony Plot and Structure Ã¢â¬ ¢ Plot = reflection of motivation and causation Ã¢â¬â No plot = The king died and then the queen died. Ã¢â¬â Plot = The king died, and then the queen died of grief. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Conflict = controlling impulse in a connected pattern of causes and effects Ã¢â¬â Opposition of two or more people (e. g. , hatred, envy, anger, argument, avoidance, gossip, lies, fighting, etc. ) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Dilemma = Conflict within or for one person Ã¢â¬â Conflict is a major element of plot because it arouses curiosity, causes. doubt, creates tension, produces interest Ã¢â¬â No tension = no interest Structure of Fiction Ã¢â¬ ¢ Structure defines the layout of the work Crisis Complication Climax Exposition Resolution (denouement) Another structural element used sometimes = Flashback Characters in Fiction Ã¢â¬ ¢ Character = verbal representation of a human being Ã¢â¬â Rounded = lifelike, full, dynamic, reader can predict future behavior because of an understanding of the personality Ã¢â¬â Protagonist = the hero or heroine, main person in the story, person on the quest, etc. Ã¢â¬â Antagonist = the person causing the conflict, in opposition to the protagonist, the obstacle, etc. Ã¢â¬â Flat = no growth, static Ã¢â¬â Stock = representative of a group or class (stereotypical) Ã¢â¬â Characters disclosed through Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Actions Descriptions, both personal and environmental Dramatic statements and thoughts Statements by other characters Statements by the author speaking as storyteller, or observer Ã¢â¬â Characters need to have verisimilitude, be probable or plausible Point of View Ã¢â¬ ¢ Refers to speaker, narrator, persona or voice created by the author to tell the story Ã¢â¬ ¢ Point of view depends on two factors: Ã¢â¬â Physical situation of the narrator as an observer Ã¢â¬â SpeakerÃ¢â¬â¢s intellectual and emotional position Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ First person = I, we Second person = You (uncommon) Third person = He, she, they (most common) Point of view may be: Ã¢â¬â Dramatic/objective = strictly reporting Ã¢â¬â Omniscient = all-knowing Ã¢â¬â Limited omniscient = some insight Setting Ã¢â¬ ¢ Setting = a workÃ¢â¬â¢s natural, manufactured, political, cultural and temporal environment, including everything that characters know and own (place, time, objects) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Major purpose = to establish realism or verisimilitude, and to organize a story Ã¢â¬ ¢ Setting helps create atmosphere or mood Ã¢â¬ ¢ Setting may reinforce characters and theme, in order to establish expectations that are the opposite of what occurs = irony. Tone and Style Ã¢â¬ ¢ Tone = methods by which writers and speakers reveal attitudes or feelings Ã¢â¬ ¢ Style = ways in which writers assemble words to tell the story, to develop an argument, dramatize the play, compose the poem Ã¢â¬â Choice of words in the service of content Ã¢â¬ ¢ Essential aspect of style is diction Ã¢â¬â Formal = standard or elegant words Ã¢â¬â Neutral = everyday standard vocabulary Ã¢â¬â Informal = colloquial, substandard language, slang Tone and Style (contÃ¢â¬â¢d) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Language may be: Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Specific = images General = broad classes Concrete = qualities of immediate perception Abstract = broader, less palpable qualities Ã¢â¬ ¢ Denotation = word meanings Ã¢â¬ ¢ Connotation = word suggestions Ã¢â¬ ¢ Verbal irony = contradictory statements Ã¢â¬â One thing said, opposite is meant Ã¢â¬â Irony = satire, parody, sarcasm, double entendre Ã¢â¬ ¢ Understatement = does not fully describe the importance of a situation Ã¢â¬â deliberately Ã¢â¬ ¢ Hyperbole (overstatement) = words far in excess of the situation Symbolism and Allegory Ã¢â¬ ¢ Symbolism and allegory are modes that expand meaning Ã¢â¬ ¢ Symbol creates a direct, meaningful equation between: Ã¢â¬â A specific object, scene, character, or action Ã¢â¬â Ideas, values, persons or ways of life Ã¢â¬ ¢ Symbols may be: Ã¢â¬â Cultural (universal) = known by most literate people (e. g. , white dove, color black) Ã¢â¬â Contextual (authorial) = private, created by the author Symbolism and Allegory (contÃ¢â¬â¢d) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Allegory is a symbol = complete and self-sufficient narrative (e. g. , Ã¢â¬Å"Young Goodman BrownÃ¢â¬ ) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Fable = stories about animals that possess human traits (e. g. , AesopÃ¢â¬â¢s Fables) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Parable = allegory with moral or religious bent (e.g. , Biblical stories) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Myth = story that embodies and codifies religious, philosophical and cultural values of the civilization in which it is composed (e. g. , George Washington chopping down the cherry tree) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Allusion = the use of other culturally well=known works from the Bible, Greek and Roman mythology, famous art, etc. Idea or Theme Ã¢â¬ ¢ Idea = results of general and abstract thinking Ã¢â¬ ¢ Literature embodies values along with ideas Ã¢â¬â In literature, ideas relate to meaning, interpretation, explanation and significance Ã¢â¬â Ideas are vital to an understanding and appreciation of literature. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ideas are not as obvious as character or setting. It is important to consider the meaning of what youÃ¢â¬â¢ve read and then develop an explanatory and comprehensive assertion. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Theme can be found in any of these: Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Direct statements by the authorial voice Direct statements by a first-person speaker Dramatic statements by characters Figurative language, characters who stand for ideas The work itself.